The backup, probably one of the most important things if you do not want to be screwed in IT. Only at the thought of losing important data within a company is the creepy. So we try to understand what backup is and its various types.
It is a process that allows the copying of your data in such a way that it is possible to restore them in case of problems by replacing the corrupted originals. They can be used to restore entire systems following a disaster or small files deleted by mistake. In addition to understanding what kind of backup must be done (databases, files, mailboxes, etc.), which software and hardware should be used, when and how long to backup, we must also dwell on how to manage them.
- On-line: the most common use hard disks or disk arrays. The restoration can be short but also expansive. This version can delete or overwrite malicious or unintentional actions
- Near-line: less accessible and less expansive than the online version, it often consists of a tape library with a restore of seconds or minutes
- Off-line: it requires some direct human actions to physically load the hard disk. Access time is reduced by minutes, hours to days
- Backup site o DR site: in the event of a disaster, you can switch from the backup site to the DR site until the problem is fixed. It is a very expensive solution
It is also important to understand what type of backup to perform:
- Full Backup: designed for data and files, it can mark their attributes to distinguish which data has been backed up. It is certainly expensive because it copies all the data every time. To restore it, just use the last backup and it offers a faster restore of all
- Full backup with incremental backup: start with a full backup and then continue with a certain number of incremental backups by copying the new data that was not saved in previous backups. When you decide to restore, simply restore the full backup first and then one at a time the incrementals until the last one. It offers data backup faster than everyone
- Full backup with differential: it also starts with a full backup and continues with differential backups where the non-backed data is stored in the full one. In this case it will be sufficient to restore the full backup and only the last differential backup.
BACKUP ROTATION SCHEMES
How often to make backups depends above all on the importance of the data we are processing and how much effort is needed to recreate it. The most critical ones are backed up every night, the data every week, the least important every month and so on. A very important factor to test your backups occasionally to verify that it works. Or the most common backup rotation schemes is the grandfather-father-son (GFS). The child backup backs up every day. At the end of the week, the daily backup is promoted to a weekly backup. The weekly backup father rotates backupping every week. At the end of the month he is promoted to a grandfather backup which will be repeated every month.
WINDOWS BACKUP SERVER
First we need to install Windows Server Backup through the Add Roles and Features option
We select Next
We selectRoles-based or feature-based installation and Next
We select our Server and Next
In Server Roles click Next
In Features instead we choose Windows Server Backup and Next
Now open Windows Server Backup, there will be a screen where we will show all the backups set. On the left on Configure Performance and Custom you can choose whether to perform the Full Backup or Incremental Backup of the disks that Windows sees.
after you can choose Backup Once, do a Recover or as in our case Backup Schedule
Choose whether to back up the whole system or only certain parts of it, then Next
Choose at what time and when to schedule the backup and then Next
Now we have to choose which disk / volume to back up the server. We can choose a special disk designed just to do these procedures, on a shared folder or on a volume. Since there is a crisis, in our case we choose volume (a part of the current partitioned disk). And then Next
We select the volume and ok
We can see that in our disk volume the backup was performed at the time and day specified
After clarifying the types of backup, we have seen the implementation on windows where you can choose between Full Backup or Incremental Backup.
In addition to Windows Server Backup there are certainly much more professional alternatives such as VEEAM on which to rely, but to understand and see how it works, our solution is just fine.
Books to understand how Windows servers work: